Pregnant patients are more prone to oral health problems because during pregnancy there is hormonal changes that increase the blood flow to the gum tissue which can cause :
1) PREGNANCY GINGIVITIS : During pregnancy hormonal changes can make your gums more prone to plaque formation leading to sensitive, painful ,irritable ,and swollen gum line that bleed while brushing, Inflammation of gums during pregnancy is called pregnancy gingivitis which is common in more than 40% of pregnant women.
2) PERIODONTITIS : Untreated gingivitis can progress to a more serious form of gum disease which will lead to massive swelling of gums called periodontitis which means a bacterial infection that attacks not just the gums but also tooth supporting bone which eventually cause bone loss , loosen the teeth and even lead to tooth loss.
3) BENIGN ORAL GINGIVAL LESION : sometimes a large lump with deep red forms on inflamed gum tissue, usually near the upper gum line The red lump glistens, may bleed and crust over , and can make eating and speaking difficult and cause discomfort .These growths are called pregnancy tumors and can occur at any time during the course of pregnancy , although they usually occur during the second trimester.
4) DENTAL CAVITY: Pregnant women are at higher risk of tooth decay for several reasons , including increased acidity in the oral cavity , sugary dietary cravings and limited attention to oral health. Early caries appears as white , demineralised areas that later break down into brownish discoloration leading to cavities.
5) TOOTH EROSION : Tooth erosion is caused by acid attacking the enamel, as in pregnancy there is constant vomiting which will cause damage to the enamel of the teeth morning sickness in pregnancy that continues for extended periods of time and increases the acid reflux during pregnancy contributes to dental erosion.
6) DRY MOUTH : pregnancy dry mouth can put women at a greater risk for problems such as tooth decay and infections . Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated and chew sugarfree gums to enhance production of saliva.